Chip Cards or Contact smart cards
Contact smart cards have a contact area of approximately 1 square centimetre (0.16 sq in), comprising several gold-plated contact pads.
These pads provide electrical connectivity
when inserted into which is used as a communications medium between the smart card and a host or a mobile telephone. Cards do not
contain batteries; power is supplied by the card reader.
The ISO/IEC 7810 and ISO/IEC 7816 series of standards define:
electrical connector positions and shapes,
communications protocols, including commands sent to and responses from the card,
Because the chips in financial cards are the same as those used in subscriber identity modules (SIMs) in mobile phones,
programmed differently and embedded in a different piece of PVC, chip manufacturers are building to the more demanding GSM/3G standards.
Communication protocols for contact smart cards include T=0 (character-level transmission protocol,
defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3) and T=1 (block-level transmission protocol, defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3).